Home repair, remodeling, and renovation are heavily covered by this site but if you are interested in how a single-family home is constructed from beginning to end, HowStuffWorks has an interesting article that breaks down every step of the typical construction process in an easy to digest way.
If you are interested in learning more here are some books that outline the home building process from the ground-up.
Habitat for Humanity: How to Build a House
How to Design and Build Your Own House
How to Plan, Subcontract and Build Your Dream House: Everything You Need to Know to Avoid the Pitfalls